The Sky is Falling
A Response and Rebuttal to
Kevin Christensen's Interpreter Essay:
Eye of the Beholder, Law of the Harvest:
Observations on the Inevitable Consequences
of the Different Investigative Approaches of
Jeremy Runnells and Jeff Lindsay
Read Text Here
IntroductionKevin Christensen (FairMormon Apologist) has written a long rambling folksy sounding diatribe about how Jeff Lindsay's "investigative approach" is far superior to that of my friend Jeremy Runnells, because Lindsay did not come to a negative conclusion about Mormonism. He compares the two men to two "seeds" who have produced different "harvests". Of course he implies that Lindsay is the good seed, and Jeremy is the bad.
Part II: The "Perfect" StrawmanIn this part I will focus on two more sections of Christensen's article. The first he names,
Starting Position and What It TellsChristensen writes:
So what does Runnells's Letter to a CES Director disclose about his conceptual framework and his method? Start with the very first issue that Runnells raises in his letter, regarding the Book of Mormon translation and "1769 King James edition errors. An ancient text? Errors which are unique to the 1769 edition that Joseph Smith owned?" He returns to this point in his website response to FairMormon:
The presence of 17th century KJV italics and 1769 KJV errors - word for word - in the Book of Mormon is its own damning evidence. These errors totally undermine the claim that Joseph "translated" the Book of Mormon and the claim that the Book of Mormon is the most correct book on earth.
According to Thomas Kuhn, "Anomaly (Abnormality) appears only against the background provided by the paradigm (pattern). The more precise and far-reaching that paradigm (pattern) is, the more sensitive an indicator it provides of anomaly, and hence of an occasion for paradigm (pattern) change."According to Christensen this issue is just a small anomaly in his Book of Mormon "paradigm", and therefore Jeremy should basically ignore it, because it is so trivial that it is just a silly anomaly. But what if it isn't? As Edmund O. Acevedo writes, Kuhn also defines an anomaly as "nature's failure to conform entirely to expectation", which is what Christensen is trying to apply to Jeremy Runnells via the Book of Mormon. But Acevedo also writes:
Clearly not all anomalies result in progress. The vast majority are ignored. When an anomaly persists over an extended period of time, the most common effect is that scientists will attempt to alter their instrumentation in a way that makes the anomaly disappear or they will try to make the anomaly fit within the paradigm (i.e. modify the expectation and thus make the former anomaly seem expected).This seems to be exactly what Christensen is doing and wants Jeremy to do. He is ignoring what he calls an anomaly and trying to make it fit into his Book of Mormon paradigm. But it doesn't fit. This is when an anomaly becomes a "crisis". As Acevedo writes:
The forces that can convert an anomaly to a crisis are many, and usually several of them must co-occur. For example, a persistent anomaly may call into question some of the most fundamental tenets of the paradigm. In other cases, the paradigm predicts that an application should be ineffective when long practice has clearly established its utility (or conversely, the paradigm predicts that an application should be effective when practice reliably demonstrates its failure). As a result of such discrepancies, the anomaly becomes more widely recognized (e.g., replicated and confirmed by a broader circle of scientists) and even catches the attention of prominent figures in the field. The anomaly then becomes "the new fixation point of scientific scrutiny" (Kuhn, 1962/1996, p. 83) and its resolution becomes a shared goal. One of the defining features of a field in crisis is the emergence of multiple divergent attempts to resolve the anomaly. As these attempts multiply, they also become more diversified. Although early attempts may follow the rules of the paradigm closely, the persistence of the anomaly begs "ad hoc adjustments" (p. 83) of the paradigm that are increasingly bold and unruly. Thus "the rules of normal science become increasingly blurred. Though there still is a paradigm, few practitioners prove to be entirely agreed about what it is. Even formerly standard solutions of solved problems are called into question.(p. 83). (Edmund O. Acevedo, The Oxford Handbook of Exercise Psychology, 297).According to many, there are numerous anomalies in Christensen's Book of Mormon paradigm. These anomalies are widely recognized, even by the faithful like B. H. Roberts, who Jeremy discusses in his work. Roberts called one of these anomalies "a menace to the Book of Mormon". (Studies of the Book of Mormon, 240, CES Letter, 11). David P. Wright, associate professor of Hebrew Bible and Ancient Near East, (Brandeis University) claims that Grant Palmer:
...is on absolutely firm ground for his conclusion that the Book of Mormon is not an ancient work and, with this, according to his last two main chapters, that Smith's visionary experiences were more subjective than tradition claims. (Dialogue, Vol. 38, No. 1, 172-173).As Jeremy himself wrote:
Here are the facts:
- There are 17th century KJV additions (denoted by italics in the KJV) in the Book of Mormon.
- There are 1769 KJV Bible edition errors unique to only that edition present in the Book of Mormon.
- FairMormon concedes below that while there are no reports from witnesses that Joseph used an open Bible, "it is entirely possible that Joseph had access to a Bible during the period of translation."
- FairMormon awkwardly points to the Mormon god Himself as a possible source for putting unique 1769 KJV edition errors and 17th century italics in the "most correct book on earth" Book of Mormon: "...we do not claim to know why the Lord chose to reveal the Biblical passages in that manner." (Debunking FAIR's Debunking, Online here, Accessed April 1, 2015).
For Runnells the appearance of any imperfection in the Book of Mormon translation seems scandalous to the point of being overwhelming. Betty Edwards explains how our preconceptions inevitably influence our subjective perception of significance:
Most of us tend to see parts of a form hierarchically. The parts that are important (that is, provide a lot of information), or the parts that we decide are larger, [Page 180]or the parts we think should be larger, we see as larger than they actually are. Conversely, parts that are unimportant, or that we decide are smaller, or that we think should be smaller, we see as being smaller than they actually are.
If the question is the perfection of the Book of Mormon text, and if we can safely assume that the beholder is infallibly capable of detecting it, imperfection is the only decisive information - indeed, it is the only information that answers the question. Therefore imperfection has crucial importance relative to the question and is actually perceived in our minds as being large and scandalously important. Even the appearance of imperfection will loom large in our consciousness. No matter how much information might exist to support the notion of a real translation by Joseph Smith, it does not and cannot answer the question of perfection, and therefore, relative to that question, it appears less important. That is why no favorable information regarding the Book of Mormon appears in the Letter to a CES Director. Evidence in favor of the Book of Mormon or Joseph Smith's inspiration does not answer the question of perfection, so in setting the table with what counts most to Runnells, none of that kind of information appears.This straw man (in bold above) is rather silly. The Book of Mormon text can't be perfect so it doesn't matter? Jeremy Runnells nowhere claims that the Book of Mormon text should be "perfect". How does one who was a longstanding member of the Church and believed the truth claims about the Book of Mormon for many years have the "preconceptions" that Christensen speaks of?
This also means that if we changed our question from the perfection of the Book of Mormon translation to the reality of the translation, then supposed imperfections would not be as crucially decisive, and would therefore have a smaller significance.Whose question? Christensen's? Why would he change his own question? Because it certainly in no way, shape or form was Jeremy's. Jeremy does speak about the reality of the translation. That is what he addresses in the CES letter (see pages 13-14). The reality is that Joseph Smith "translated" the Book of Mormon by putting a rock in a hat and claiming that the text that he then dictated was given to him by the "gift and power of God". The imperfections/anamolies in the Book of Mormon are massive. Please see this article on MormonThink for a list of them. Also, the reality of what translation? We have nothing to compare it to, so how do we know it is even a translation from an actual language? We don't. This always has been the real issue. Christensen then claims:
The reality of Joseph Smith's inspiration is a different question than the perfection of his inspiration and leads the inquirer to different information. That is why reading books by Hugh Nibley or John Sorenson or Richard L. Anderson or Richard Bushman, John Tvedtnes, John Welch, or Terryl Givens makes for a very different experience than does reading Runnells's Letter. They ask different questions, work with different soil, nurture the seed in a different manner, and produce vastly different harvests.Unfortunately one cannot separate the reality of Smith's inspiration from it's supposed perfection because of the claims that Smith himself made. Reading those claims (by Smith and other Mormon "Authorities") is all the information one needs. And please excuse us if we don't want to give credence to the spin of Mormon apologists like Nibley, Givens, Anderson, Tvedtnes, or Welch, when it was hard enough to read their claims. We would rather quote Joseph Smith who said:
I never told you I was perfect, but there are NO ERRORS in the REVELATIONS that I have taught. (The Words of Joseph Smith, ed. Andrew F. Ehat and Lyndon W. Cook , 369), emphasis addedSeems like it is Joseph Smith who is claiming perfection in revelation here, which Christensen strangely doesn't address (and neither does FairMormon). But even Hugh Nibley said:
We can never prove absolutely that the Book of Mormon is what it claims to be; but any serious proven fault in the work would at once condemn it. If I assume the Book of Mormon to be fraudulent, then whatever is correct in it is merely a lucky coincidence, devoid of any real significance. But if I assume that it is true, then any suspicious passage is highly significant and casts suspicion on the whole thing, no matter how much of it is right. (1953, 831; all but the first clause has been deleted in Nibley 1989, 56). (Stan Larson quoted in Brent Metcalfe, New Approaches to the Book of Mormon, 238, added emphasis. See also the Improvement Era, LVI [Nov. 1953]:831, Online here, Accessed April 1, 2015). Emphasis added.Nibley's quote here destroys Christensen's argument. He claims that any suspicious passage in the Book of Momron is highly significant and casts suspicion on the whole thing. So why fault Jeremy for feeling the same way? This is one of Christensen's chosen apologists, folks. The 1828 dictionary defines perfection as:
PERFEC'TION, n. [L. perfectio.] The state of being perfect or complete, so that nothing requisite is wanting; as perfection in an art or science; perfection in a system of morals.As Orson Pratt explains:
It is to be expected that when the angel restores the gospel it will be restored in fullness and in the most perfect simplicity and plainness so that every point of the doctrine of Christ shall be clearly revealed and expressed in such language that no two persons could understand it differently. Many things, connected with the doctrine of Christ, are not clearly revealed and dressed in the English translation of the Bible: this is owing, as we have already shown in number three to the loss of many of the inspired writings, and to the rejection of many sacred books by the third council of Carthage, together with those which have since been rejected by the Protestants: and also, as we have before proved, another great source of error is, that the Greek and Hebrew manuscripts from which the Bible was translated, had become so awfully corrupted in almost every text, that the translators were utterly at a loss to know which reading was correct. All these things, combined with the unavoidable errors of an uninspired translation have rendered the English Bible extremely uncertain and ambiguous. This uncertainty and ambiguity have been the principal cause of all the divisions of modern Christendom. The only way to remedy this great evil is to obtain another revelation of the gospel, free from all the corruptions and uncertainty which characterizes the English Bible. Nothing short of such a revelation can ever redeem mankind from their errors of doctrine; nothing else can be an infallible standard of the Christian religion; nothing else can reclaim them from divisions and strifes; nothing else will give certainty and stability so necessary to the happiness and salvation of man; and nothing else could be expected in the revelation of the gospel an angel. Such a revelation is the Book of Mormon; the most infallible certainty characterizes every ordinance and every doctrinal point revealed in that book. In it there is no ambiguity-no room for controversy-no doctrine so imperfectly expressed that two persons would draw two different conclusions there from. Such a revelation was greatly needed and such a revelation the angel has revealed. (Orson Pratt, Divine Authenticity of the Book of Mormon, 83, added emphasis).Pratt defines the Book of Mormon as infallible, perfect in it's doctrines. He claims that there is no doctrine "imperfectly expressed". Jeremy quotes Joseph Smith, who said:
I told the brethren that the Book of Mormon was the most correct of any book on earth, and the keystone of our religion, and a man would get nearer to God by abiding by its precepts, than by any other book. (History of the Church, 4:461, added emphasis.)The 1828 definition of the word correct is:
CORRECT, adjective [Latin , to set right; right, straight. See Right.] Literally, set right, or made straight. Hence, right; conformable to truth, rectitude or propriety, or conformable to a just standard; not faulty; free from error.It seems that Christensen may want to rethink his approach to those anomalies he claims are of no concern and put the claim of perfection where it rightly belongs. Fortunately at the official lds.org, they do address the issue of "translation" in one of the new essays. They write:
According to these accounts, Joseph placed either the interpreters or the seer stone in a hat, pressed his face into the hat to block out extraneous light, and read aloud the English words that appeared on the instrument. The process as described brings to mind a passage from the Book of Mormon that speaks of God preparing "a stone, which shall shine forth in darkness unto light."
The scribes who assisted with the translation unquestionably believed that Joseph translated by divine power. Joseph's wife Emma explained that she "frequently wrote day after day" at a small table in their house in Harmony, Pennsylvania. She described Joseph "sitting with his face buried in his hat, with the stone in it, and dictating hour after hour with nothing between us." According to Emma, the plates "often lay on the table without any attempt at concealment, wrapped in a small linen table cloth." When asked if Joseph had dictated from the Bible or from a manuscript he had prepared earlier, Emma flatly denied those possibilities: "He had neither manuscript nor book to read from." Emma told her son Joseph Smith III, "The Book of Mormon is of divine authenticity - I have not the slightest doubt of it. I am satisfied that no man could have dictated the writing of the manuscripts unless he was inspired; for, when acting as his scribe, your father would dictate to me for hour after hour; and when returning after meals, or after interruptions, he would at once begin where he had left off, without either seeing the manuscript or having any portion of it read to him." (emphasis added)As Russell M. Nelson stated in the July 1993 Ensign:
The details of this miraculous method of translation are still not fully known. Yet we do have a few precious insights. David Whitmer wrote:
"Joseph Smith would put the seer stone into a hat, and put his face in the hat, drawing it closely around his face to exclude the light; and in the darkness the spiritual light would shine. A piece of something resembling parchment would appear, and on that appeared the writing. One character at a time would appear, and under it was the interpretation in English. Brother Joseph would read off the English to Oliver Cowdery, who was his principal scribe, and when it was written down and repeated to Brother Joseph to see if it was correct, then it would disappear, and another character with the interpretation would appear. Thus the Book of Mormon was translated by the gift and power of God, and not by any power of man." (David Whitmer, An Address to All Believers in Christ, Richmond, Mo.: n.p., 1887, p. 12, added emphasis).Joseph Knight wrote:
Now the way he translated was he put the Urim and Thummim into his hat and darkened his eyes, then he would take a sentence and it would appear in bright Roman letters, then he would tell the writer and he would write it. Then that would go away, the next sentence would come, and so on. But if it was not spelled right it would not go away till it was right, so we see it was marvelous. Thus was the whole translated. (added emphasis)In January of 1833, W. W. Phelps wrote (per Joseph's instructions) in The Evening and Morning Star:
The word of the Lord carries its own evidence with it. In vain have men attempted to counterfeit it. They may compass the earth with their knowledge, and look through the regions of space by their inventions, but death teaches them their frailty, and time covers their glory. The book of Mormon, as a revelation from God, possesses some advantage over the old scripture: it has not been tinctured by the wisdom of man, with here and there an Italic word to supply deficiencies. - It was translated by the gift and power of God, by an unlearned man, through the aid of a pair of Interpreters, or spectacles-(known, perhaps, in ancient days as Teraphim, or Urim and Thummim)... (The Evening and Morning Star, Vol. 1, No 8, January 1833, 58).Here we see that the claim that Jeremy makes was addressed by Joseph Smith and that those italic words should not be in the Book of Mormon! If this is such a "minor issue", then why did they feel it so important to address in 1833? Also, Joseph Smith himself was so confident in W. W. Phelps that he wrote to him in the same month and advised him that:
...we wish you to render the Star as interesting as possable by setting forth the rise progress and faith of the church, as well as the doctrine for if you do not render it more interesting than at present it will fall, and the church suffer a great Loss thereby -(JS, Letter, Kirtland, OH to William W. Phelps, Jackson County, MO, 11 Jan. 1833; in JS Letterbook 1, pp. 18-20; handwriting of Frederick G. Williams; CHL).Apparently God displayed on the stones all of the KJV errors that Smith then dictated to his scribes. He had no book or manuscript, and that would include the Bible. The English words simply "appeared on the instrument". Smith himself claimed that there were "no errors" in the revelations that he taught, and this would include the Book of Mormon as he also claimed that it was the "most correct book" and therefore free from errors. He had published in the Star, that the Book of Mormon was never "tinctured by the wisdom of man, with here and there an italic word to supply the deficiencies" but we know that Smith copied them right into the Book of Mormon text! The reality of their claims is far from what the truth of the matter is. And this claim (of the Book being error free or perfect) is made because it was claimed that it was translated by "the gift and power of God". This is not a claim by Jeremy Runnells, but one made by Joseph Smith himself and others associated with him. Not perfection in spelling, etc., but no errors in the "revelations". Why then, are all the KJV errors found in the Book of Mormon? Why were they not corrected in subsequent editions like many other transcribing errors were? This folks, is not an "anomaly" or a minor issue because it was important enough for the early Mormons to address in an effort to establish Smith's credibility as a prophet and seer. God supposedly gave Smith lots of new text that wasn't in the Bible. So why would he need to project on Smith's stone the exact wording of the KJV with all the errors? This is an argument borne out of desperation, which no quaint anecdote can remedy. Mormon "prophets" have always claimed to be doctrinally infallible. Conflating this with what they describe as character or personality flaws is where apologists like Christensen go off the deep end. He then waxes philosophical with another irrelevant anecdote:
Consider the difference between perfection and reality through one of the tales of Lancelot, Chrètien de Troyes's The Knight and the Cart. The story involves Lancelot going on an elaborate adventure to rescue a captive Queen Guinevere. When, after overcoming many trials, dangers, and obstacles, he finally finds and frees her, she rejects him. Much later, after both the Queen and Lancelot endure more suffering and trauma due to that rejection, she finally refers to a moment, when, in order to obtain crucial information, he needed to travel via a prison cart, and thereby endure public shame. And he did so, after only a moment's hesitation. The Queen's only reaction was, "Why did you hesitate?" as though to her, only that imperfection mattered. And oddly enough, he agrees with her about the devastating significance of that single momentary lapse, based on the peculiar ideals he brings to the issue. A concern about the reality of Lancelot's effort, or even just the success of his effort, rather than perfection relative to the unrealistic ideals of courtly love, would grant weight and significance to all of his actions during his adventure, including a recognition that he overcame his own hesitation in dealing with his pride versus the need to ride the cart. So questions regarding what is real, as opposed to what appears to be perfect and or ideal, raise different issues, and call for a different kind of processing, and consideration of a much wider set of information.This is simply pseudo intellectual jargon that has nothing to do with the Mormon concept of revelation except in Christensen's fertile imagination. These long-winded takeaways from the issues may appear to him to be charming, but they are simply tedious and ineffectual. This is what happens folks, when an author is trying to prop up their own red herring. Still, what does this have to do with Jeremy Runnells' criticisms of the Book of Mormon? Absolutely nothing. It is simply by a diversion by Christensen to promote his own strawman argument, nothing more. He then writes:
In approaching the Book of Mormon, we could do what Runnells does; look for imperfection, and then display indignation and shock.Again, this is a strawman of Christensen's making. Jeremy never claimed that the Book of Mormon had to be perfect, so he's not looking for imperfection, he is being critical of its historical authenticity and translation method (by the "gift and power of God") based on what the Book of Mormon and Joseph Smith actually say. Christensen's purpose here, is to try and make those criticisms trivial; and turn Jeremy into a villain for even bringing them up. Remember, Jeremy believed in the Book of Mormon for years before he began discovering the problems associated with the narrative that Joseph Smith authored. Indignation and shock are a natural reaction in someone who feels they have been duped for years. Christensen then asks a series of carefully worded questions that deal with Mormon apologetic claims:
Or we could ask, how does the Book of Mormon translation and treatment of internal scriptural quotation compare with scriptural quotation within the Bible [Page 182]and compared to the evidence of biblical transmission and translation? Does the Book of Mormon contain information consistent with eyewitness accounts of the times and settings that it claims for itself? Does it accurately describe conditions in Jerusalem, 600 bc? Does it accurately describe cultural and physical conditions in the Arabian desert? Does it accurately describe a Bountiful area at a coastal location east of Nahom? How does the Book of Mormon describe its New World setting? Are there indications of others? What cultures does it describe and what physical settings? Does the description of Cumorah in the Book of Mormon fit the New York hill "of considerable size," or, traditional identifications notwithstanding, should we look elsewhere? What forms of government, politics, religion, and trade does it describe? What are the patterns of warfare, including seasonality, tactics, and weapons? Do the 28 verses describing the Sidon contain enough information to narrow the range of candidate rivers for an external correlation? Can we assume homogeneity and accuracy in all cultural descriptions, that is, can we assume that what Enos says about Lamanite culture from the outside also applies to what we see later when the sons of Mosiah actually travel and live among the Lamanites? What are the best sources of information against which to test its claims? If during the course of my investigation, I run across something that I did not expect, what happens if I then pause to reflect and ask, "What should I expect?" But just as Guinevere only asks about an imperfection in the Lancelot quest, Runnells looks only for imperfection in Mormonism. The eye of the beholder crucially influences the harvest.This last claim by Christensen is simply not based in reality. Like me, Jeremy was a member of the Church for decades. His family are members. Does Christensen think that we are not familiar with such issues? That we haven't asked such questions? Either he is extremely naive, or he is simply posturing for his audience. Did Christensen even listen to Jeremy's podcast where he describes his life in the Church and his extended Missionary work? Does he even care what Jeremy knew before he began investigating deeper issues in the Book of Mormon? Here is where Christensen fails, because he is basically saying that he knows what issues that Jeremy has studied and that in his eyes Jeremy doesn't find impressive the apologist answers to the questions that Christensen raises all of which have been answered by them with only speculation. I guess I'll play the analogy game here.
You are a Doctor and a patient has died on your table from massive wounds that no one could have survived. The monitors have been flat-lined for many minutes and everyone in the E.R. tells you that your patient has died - but you can't bring yourself to accept it. You had invested so much time and used all your skill to save the patient. In frustration at the announcement of your patient's death you grab the defibrillator paddles and you use them on the patient. No response. You do this over and over again, each time with absolute certainty that the patient's heart will kick start and they will live. But this doesn't revive them and still you can't accept it. You check the vitals again, you perform CPR, you pound their chest and grab at the paddles again but someone pulls you away. You then realize that yes, the patient is really dead but deep down you still can't believe it and look around with accusatory eyes for someone else to blame it on. You convince yourself that it wasn't your fault, it was someone else's. If only they would have believed things might have turned out different. They just didn't look at things from the right perspective. Their preconceived notions led them down the wrong path and did not allow you to prove they were wrong and you could have saved the patient.INSERT DOCTOR PICTURE What Christensen wants critics to do is keep defibrillating someone after they are long dead and can't understand when someone is convinced by reality. Christensen wants critics to accept another Cumorah than the one Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery identified; to desperately cling to the notion that the Book of Mormon documents an historical reality; or that we can find some river or lake or portion of coastline that matches what is vaguely described there. One must also overturn every rock and hiding place and crazy theory that might somehow, someway verify that the Book of Mormon is something more than 19th century fiction before we can declare it to be a fraud. He acts like no critic has ever studied these issues before. He wants us to accept Nibley's wacky parallelomania and false dichotomies, and take Warren Aston (the UFO "expert") seriously. But when critics don't, they are not as bending as Christensen is, they are brittle and shatter with the slightest breeze. They didn't study enough, they didn't look at it with the right perspective. Christensen claims that Jeremy has not really studied the issues. But he has read and quoted FairMormon and other Mormon apologists extensively and that still doesn't seem to be enough for Christensen. I too have studied all of these issues and find all of that "evidence" is simply made up apologist spin. For example, let's take Nahom and Warren P. Aston. Just google his name and you come up with articles like this one: "UFO researcher hunting for truth," which talks about how Aston believes the story of a man who claimed that aliens showed him the future which included the home computer and the rise of Nazi Germany. This UFO "expert" also owns a travel agency called "Bountiful Tours". We find on their webpage (from 2011):
"Bountiful Tours conducts unique tours of Lehi & Sariah's path from Jerusalem to Bountiful. It also operates custom-made tours overland into the historical Hadramaut Valley and coast of Yemen, air-tours to the mystical island of Socotrain the Indian Ocean and tours of the ancient Frankincense Trail in Saudi Arabia."Here is the price info on the 'tour' from 2011:
The 2011 tour will be led throughout by Warren Aston. The tour itself commences on Sunday October 9th in Jerusalem and ends in Muscat, Oman on Friday October 21st.
Tour cost is $US 2835 per person, share-twin, Single Supplement is $560. The tour price includes all sightseeing, tours and entrances, all land and water transportation, first class hotels with breakfasts daily throughout, luggage handling, return domestic airfares within Oman, most dinners and a picnic lunch. All airport transfers are included for those traveling on the group flights.
Not included are visa fees and taxes, other meals, drinks and gratuities. Airfare - for those departing from the US, a special group airfare from New York City JFK - Saturday evening October 8th - and arriving back at JFK on the afternoon of Friday October 21st is available for $US 970, plus taxes and fuel surcharges (currently $352).For 2015 it states that:
Price: tour cost is $3990 pp twin share. Single supplement is $755.Is anyone just a little concerned that the guy who is promoting evidence which "constitute[s] the first actual archaeological evidence for the historicity of the Book of Mormon," is also trying to make a buck off of it? He is also selling a book and documentary to go along with it. Also, is anyone just a little concerned that the guy who claims to have found 'proof' for the Book of Mormon also believes there are extraterrestrials living among us? Here is a sample of Aston's 'proofs':
"Some of the physical differences between extraterrestrials and ourselves have been recorded by a noted medical doctor, Dr. Leopoldo Diaz, head of surgery at a major hospital in Guadalajara, who had occasion to examine a man in his office in 1976. Requesting a medical examination because he traveled much, the man was examined by Dr. Diaz who quickly realized that he was not human. At this point his patient disclosed the real reason for his visit. He had seemingly chosen a well-respected and influential figure to pass on the information that "many" people from his planet were here living undetected among us, trying to help us avert catastrophe. In a long conversation he taught the doctor a great deal about religion, life after death and earth's future before leaving and disappearing outside the building." (See Photo for a picture of the Article, which can be read here.)INSERT GRAPHIC HERE Now I love the X-Files, it's one of my favorite TV Shows. But if I want to be taken seriously, I do not go around telling folks that I actually believe in aliens living among us and that they are taking people for rides on spaceships and revealing the future to them. I also wouldn't be trying to make a buck off of a discovery that I'm promoting as 'proof' for my religion. This is all kinds of tacky, and questions the very motives for the whole thing. Ok, I think this is enough background on Aston. Now let's take a look at his claims about NHM. Here is Aston's story as he describes it:
"In the Fall of 2000 I was one of three people leading a group of nearly 40 Latter-day Saints along the Lehi trail. We began in Jerusalem, then descended into the Arabah wilderness, traveling south until we reached the Red Sea. We next flew south to Yemen to pick up the trail. After visiting the Nahom tribal area we drove in convoy to the ancient ruins of Marib, the legendary city of the Queen of Sheba thousands of years ago. And there, in the midst of the desert, an unexpected and most extraordinary event took place.
Some time earlier, a series of museums in Europe began exhibiting a collection of treasures from Yemen's past. One of the items in the catalog reported an inscription on an altar that had been excavated at the Bar�n temple in Marib. I had been to the site years earlier. There was little to be seen then other than five and a half very tall pillars standing above the sand on which local boys would pose for pictures. It was a desolate place. A German team had unearthed the entire temple complex including the altar, dated to around 600-700 BC. What was significant was that the altar inscription named a donor who was the grandson of a man from the Nihm tribe.
We already knew that the Semitic consonants NHM referred to a tribal area that seemed likely to be the place called Nahom, where Nephi's father-in-law, Ishmael, was buried (1 Nephi 16:34). I had spent years documenting the name on old maps and writings back to within a few hundred years of Nephi's day. Always the name was in the same location.
September 12, 2000.
Not long after arriving in Marib our group began visiting the spectacular remains of the past, beginning with the famous Great Dam. From there we went to the nearby temple of Bar�n where the altar had been recovered. For me, it was hard to reconcile the carefully excavated and restored complex with what I remembered. It was only a few minutes later that we realized that a stone altar stood a short distance away, one that looked the same as the altar in the catalog. Excitedly, several of us began to examine it. Around 26 inches high, a 3 inch high band of South Arabian script encircled it. To see an almost identical altar was something that exceeded our expectations, but the best was still to come.
We had hours of desert driving ahead of us to our overnight stop, so time was short. We hurriedly took some photographs and as we sent for a tape measure I asked our Yemeni guide if he could search the inscription for any mention of NiHM. Unbelievably, he quickly picked out the characters for the name, which I copied down. Stunned, we had our photographs taken with the altar and then it was time to leave. On board the bus we announced to the entire group what had happened and told them that they had probably just been a part of a significant event.
Such it proved to be. I returned to Yemen a few weeks later and secured permission to fully document the altar and the other structures. I found that around 20 altars had been recovered at the site and amazingly, amidst a cluster of damaged altars hidden behind a wall, sat a third identical altar. The donor of 3 altars with the same text was surely wealthy. Over following months one of the world's leading authorities on early Arabia, Professor Kenneth Kitchen in England, provided us a more accurate translation of the inscription. Other scholars helped refine the dating and understand the context."His conclusion:
"For the first time, a unique Book of Mormon location had been plausibly located in the right location and period."In an article called 'Newly found Altars from Nahom', Mr. Aston makes this comment:
"In a single verse, 1 Nephi 16:34, Nephi tells us all that he wished us to know about the place called Nahom: "And it came to pass that Ishmael died, and was buried in the place which was called Nahom."Mr. Aston makes these assumptions about the verse:
"From this and one other terse statement in the Book of Mormon we learn several facts about the location:
- The wording makes it clear that Nahom was not named by Lehi's party but was already known by that name to local people. Thus other people were already settled in proximity to the Lehite encampment.
- Nephi's Bountiful lay "nearly eastward" from Nahom (1 Nephi 17:1).
- Nahom was, or at least included, a place of burial. Note that Nephi does not state that Ishmael died there, only that he was buried there, implying that it included an established burial place."
To answer Aston's claims, here is the late Ted Chandler, courtesy of MormonThink:
In "Lehi's Arabian Journey Updated" (Reynolds 1997), Noel Reynolds asserts that Mormon scholars now know the location of sites corresponding to the account of Lehi's journey through the wilderness, after leaving Jerusalem. This is based on the work of Warren and Michaela Aston. The Astons identify Book of Mormon Nahom, where Ishmael died, with Nehem, located northeast of Sana'a in Yemen, while Bountiful, located near the Irreantum Sea, corresponds with Khor Kharfot, situated east of Nehem near Oman's Dhofar coast. Reynolds thinks that Nephi's account of Nahom and Bountiful correspond so well with the sites located by the Astons that it "could only have been written by one who had personally traveled the area" (Reynolds 1997, 382). Reynolds asks:
How did he [Joseph Smith] know that a group traveling due east from NHM [Nehem] would meet the sea at a uniquely fertile and hospitable spot that was suitable for building and launching a ship? How did he know that Oman had ample resources for ship building and sailing, and that there were mountains and cliffs on the sea shore itself?
These important details run directly counter to all knowledge of Arabia in Joseph Smith's day and to most popular belief about Arabia even today. The simplest and most reasonable explanation is that Joseph Smith and his contemporaries did not know these things... (Reynolds 1997, 388)
Actually, people in Joseph Smith's day knew more about Arabia than Reynolds supposes, as is attested by the following passages from Voltaire's "The Philosoophy of History":
...but Arabia Felix deserved that name, as being surrounded with thick woods and a tempestuous sea, it was sheltered from the rapacity of robbers...This advantage is far above its aromatics, its incense, its cinnamon (which is of inferior quality) or even its coffee, which now creates its riches...
As to that extensive part called Happy, half of it consists also in deserts; but upon advancing some miles into the interior parts, either to the east of Mocha, or to the east of Mecca, there is found the most pleasant country in the world. The air is continually perfumed, during a perpetual summer, by the odor of the aromatic plants which nature spontaneously produces. Thousands of streams flow from the mountains, and preserve an incessant coolness, which moderates the heat of the sun beneath the evergreen shades. It was particularly in this country, that the words garden and paradise implied celestial favor.
The gardens of Saana, towards Aden, were more famous among the Arabians, than were those of Alcinous among the Greeks. And this Aden or Eden was called the place of delights...
This vast country of Yemen is so fine, its ports are so happily situated upon the Indian ocean, that it is said Alexander was desirous of conquering Yemen, in order to make it the seat of his empire, and the emporium of trade for the whole world. (Voltaire 1927, 400-401)
Edward Gibbon also gives this description of southern Arabia:
The high lands that border on the Indian Ocean are distinguished by their superior plenty of wood and water: the air is more temperate, the fruits are more delicious, the animals and the human race more numerous: the fertility of the soil invites and rewards the toil of the husbandman; and the peculiar gifts of frankincense and coffee have attracted in different ages the merchants of the world. If it be compared with the rest of the peninsula, this sequestered region may truly deserve the appellation of the happy...(Gibbon n.d., 3:58)
As sources for his information on Arabia, Gibbon lists not only ancient writers like Pliny and Strabo, but also the works of Pocock, who published extracts and notes on Arabian antiquities in his Specimen Historiae Arabum. Gibbon also refers a number of times to books by Carsten Niebuhr and Jean Bourguignon D'Anville, who published maps of Arabia. Nephi's account does not require any more knowledge of Arabia than was available in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The Astons claim that Lehi's group travelled in the same direction as an ancient trade route along the east shore of the Red Sea. However, there was another main trade route, in use at least as early as 336 B.C., which ran across central Arabia to Gerrha on the Persian Gulf. Gibbon refers to these two routes:
The treasures of Africa were conveyed over the peninsula to Gerrha or Katif, in the province of Bahrein, a city built, as it is said, of rock-salt, by the Chaldaean exiles; and from thence, with the native pearls of the Persian Gulf, they were floated on rafts to the mouth of the Euphrates. Mecca is placed almost at an equal distance, a month's journey, between Yemen on the right and Syria on the left hand. The former was the winter, the latter the summer, station of her caravans; and their seasonable arrival relieved the ships of India from the tedious and troublesome navigation of the Red Sea. In the markets of Saana and Merab, in the harbours of Oman and Aden, the camels of the Koreishites were laden with a precious cargo of aromatics; a supply of corn and manufactures was purchased in the fairs of Bostra and Damascus... (Gibbon n.d., 3:62)
Concerning Nahom, the Astons present two kinds of evidence: (1) the meaning of "Nehem," and (2) a place in South Arabia named Nehem. Let's consider each of these:
- The Astons state that there are two Semitic roots for Nehem. One means "to comfort, console, to be sorry," while the other means "to roar, complain, or be hungry." The Astons think that "both these roots relate in significant and very specific ways to the experiences of Lehi's group while at Nahom. . . . It is hard to imagine any place-name that would be more appropriate in view of what Nephi tells us happened there. Not only do the two roots of Nahom refer unquestionably to both mourning and consoling (and perhaps also to fasting) in connection with Ishmael's death and burial, but they seem to go still further and echo the complaining and the rebellion that followed his burial" (Aston 1994, 12-13). However, this is all quite irrelevant. Why? Because the text states and the Astons acknowledge that Nahom was already named before Lehi's group arrived there (1 Nephi 16:34; Aston 1994, 10). The fact that Ishmael died at Nahom is purely coincidental and is not connected in any way with the meaning of Nehem/Nahom. This does not constitute evidence verifying Nephi's account. Furthermore, the name Nahom is not remarkable, considering that the Bible contains the names Naham, Nahum, and Nehum. In addition, NHM is not the same word in South Arabian as it is in Hebrew and is not pronounced the same. In Hebrew, NHM is a verb, but in South Arabian, it is a noun meaning "pecked masonry," referring to a technique of roughening the finish of the stone using chisels. Why would Lehi's group insult the Arab inhabitants of the area by giving the place a Hebrew name with a different meaning?
- The Book of Mormon refers to a place called Nahom, and there was actually a place named Nehem in South Arabia along an ancient incense trade route. Nothing could be simpler. But is it really that simple? Actually, according to the Astons, the trade route passed through the Jawf valley. Nehem was not the name of a city in the valley, but was a remote burial place in the mountains south of the Jawf valley. The Astons state that Lehi's group "could only have known about Nahom from someone outside the group," and "Likely the Lehite encampment was in the Jawf valley and Ishmael was carried up into the hills for burial" (Aston 1994, 10, 13). But this is not all. The Astons also say that there was another larger burial place east of the Jawf valley in the mountains near Ruwaik. They then conclude that either Nehem or Ruwaik "may well have been the place to which local people led Lehi's mourning party to bury Ishmael" (Aston 1994, 20). It seems then that it would have been quite possible for Lehi's group to travel through the Jawf valley without ever being aware of Nehem and that in any case Ishmael may not have even been buried there.
The Book of Mormon says that Lehi's group journeyed "many days" from Shazer to Nahom, and then after turning east from Nahom, they reached Bountiful, after spending eight years in the wilderness. However, according to the Astons' interpretation, the group would have already traveled a large part of their journey upon reaching Nahom. In fact Reynolds says that the Astons have "persuasively" argued that the course followed by Lehi's group to Nahom took "years to traverse what could have been covered in months" (Reynolds 1997, 381).
Reynolds says that one of the criteria used by the Astons in searching for the site of Bountiful is that "there must be a dangerous cliff where Nephi's brothers could attempt to kill him by throwing him into the sea" (Reynolds 1997, 383). However, the text does not in fact refer to any cliff or state that Nephi's brothers made an actual attempt to kill him; it merely states that Nephi's brothers "were desirous to throw me into the depths of the sea" (1 Nephi 17:48). But when this occurred, Nephi had already made tools out of ore and was preparing to start building their ship. Nephi's brothers "were desirous that they might not labor" (1 Nephi 17:18). It is hardly possible that Nephi planned to build the ship on a cliff above the sea. If the Astons are permitted to speculate, we could conjecture as well that "depths of the sea" implies open ocean, and that Nephi's brothers planned to use a canoe or raft to take Nephi out to sea and throw him overboard. There may very well have been a cliff, but speculation should not be raised to the level of necessary criterion.
Neither Reynolds nor the Astons suggest an explanation for the strange name which the Book of Mormon confers upon the sea. Nephi states that upon reaching Bountiful, they beheld the sea, "which we called Irreantum, which, being interpreted, is many waters" (1 Nephi 17:5). Irreantum appears to be a name invented in imitation of the fact that at one time the Indian Ocean was called the Erythraean Sea. Greek "erythros" means "red," so the Indian Ocean was actually called the Red Sea. The Book of Mormon merely applies a different name to the sea, with a different meaning.
The Astons' interpretation fails to deal with certain peculiarities of the Book of Mormon account. I have argued that the Book of Mormon uses "Red Sea" with a special meaning, referring to what is now called the Dead Sea. The Book of Deuteronomy provides further evidence for this interpretation:
These be the words which Moses spake unto all Israel on this side Jordan in the wilderness, in the plain over against the Red sea, between Paran and Tophel, and Laban, and Hazeroth, and Dizahab. (There are eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir unto Kadesh-barnea.)...On this side Jordan, in the land of Moab, began Moses to declare this law...(Deut. 1:1-2, 5)
The text here refers to the plain on the east side of the Jordan "over against" the Red sea, which suggests that it is referring to the Dead Sea, which was perhaps thought to be connected with the Red Sea through the Gulf of Aqaba. Two other passages in the Bible refer to the Red sea, when the Israelites were travelling through the northern Sinai and Edom: "And they journeyed from mount Hor by the way of the Red sea, to compass the land of Edom: and the soul of the people was much discouraged because of the way" (Numbers 21:4); "Then we turned, and took our journey into the wilderness by the way of the Red sea, as the LORD spake unto me: and we compassed mount Seir many days" (Deut. 2:1). Nephi says that the river Laman "emptied into the Red Sea; and the valley was in the borders near the mouth thereof. And when my father saw that the waters of the river emptied into the fountain of the Red Sea, he spake unto Laman, saying: O that thou mightest be like unto this river continually running into the fountain of all righteousness!" (1 Nephi 2:8-9). Nephi also says that when they left the valley of Lemuel, "we did take seed of every kind that we might carry into the wilderness" (1 Nephi 16:11). Josephus describes a deep body of water in a cave beneath a large mountain: "Now the fountains of Jordan rise at the roots of this cavity outwardly; and, as some think, this is the utmost origin of Jordan . . . ." Later he also describes "a fountain by Jericho." Originally, this fountain of water had "a sickly and corruptive nature," causing harm to vegetation and new-born children. Elisha prayed over the fountain and made it "wholesome and fruitful." Josephus says that the ground watered by the fountain grew "most excellent gardens that are thick set with trees," and that the area produced honey and balsam. In another work, Josephus says that after Samson repented of his pride, God "raised him up a plentiful fountain of sweet water at a certain rock; whence it was that Samson called the place the Jaw-bone, and so it is called to this day." As William Whiston, the translator, pointed out, the Hebrew word for "jaw-bone" is Lehi: "This fountain, called Lehi, or the jaw-bone, is still in being . . . ." (See Josephus 1984, 1:77, 329; 2:334-35) I have argued that the use of "down" and "up" in the Book of Mormon indicates that Lehi's camp in the wilderness was north of Jerusalem, and that parallels with the stories of Moses and Joshua reveal that Lehi's group traveled a course opposite to that of the Israelites, when they crossed the Jordan and entered Canaan. Lehi may have camped near the "fountain by Jericho," and his river Laman, which emptied into the fountain of the Red Sea, would have joined with the Jordan, which Lehi may have considered to be this fountain of the Red Sea. When the Book of Mormon says that Lehi's group traveled in a south-southeast direction, "keeping in the most fertile parts of the wilderness, which were in the borders near the Red Sea" (1 Nephi 16:14), it appears to be referring to areas east of the Dead Sea, not the long stretch of Arabia which borders the Red Sea. I have also suggested that Nahom, where Ishmael died, is a point east of Mount Hor, where Aaron died, and that after Lehi's group turned eastward from Nahom, they reached a point near the mouth of the Euphrates River on the Persian Gulf. The name Bountiful may be connected with the meaning of "Euphrates," which is "that which makes fruitful."
And finally we can suggest a simple explanation for the name Nahom, which does not require a knowledge of Semitic roots or the geography and place-names of South Arabia. The author of Nephi's record paralleled accounts of Moses, Joshua, and the Israelites, when they journeyed along the border of the Dead Sea and crossed the Jordan to Jericho (even the Astons acknowledge these parallels). But when he wanted Lehi's group to turn eastward, he started thinking of the trek of Abraham and his family from Ur to Haran. Abraham's brother was named Nahor, and it requires only the subsititution of one letter to change the name to Nahom. This I believe, is the real meaning and significance of Nahom, and it indicates that Lehi's group did not travel to South Arabia.
Lacking any archeological evidence which definitely links Lehi's group with specific sites, any suggested route of travel must remain speculative, and therefore it is difficult to take seriously Reynolds' claim that Nephi's account "must be seen as a powerful witness of the Book of Mormon's divine origins and ancient authorship" (Reynolds 1997, 388).As we see above, the Nahom claims are easy to dismantle, because they are all based on implausible speculation. As for names, this was posted by David Wright, Professor of Bible and Ancient Near East at Brandeis University, on ZLMB in 2002:
"A large number of BOM names and words have the suffixed element -om (Abinadom, Antiomno, Corom, Cumom, Curelom, Ezrom, Jacom, Jarom, Shiblom, Shilom [not necessarily Hebrew sh-l-m!; see the caution below], Sidom, Zeezrom). Those ending in -um may represent the same suffix: Antionum, Jeneum, Helorum, Mocum, which could include also the -antum and -ancum names: Antum, Coriantum, Irreantum, Moriancum, Moriantum, Ripliancum, Seantum, Teancum. (It is less clear that -em names/words Ethem, Gazelem, Sherem, Shelem, [+ ? Zara-HEM-la/nah?] and -am names/words Luram, Zeram, Seezoram, Zoram should be included.)
The large number of names or words with -om (-um) indicate that this element may not be part of the word stem or root in many cases, but a suffix separate or distinct from the root. Thus is it difficult to argue decisively, even from a traditionalist perspective, that Nahom derives from a Semitic root n-h-m (as in the Arabic place name Nehhem) or the root n-kh-m (connected with mourning). Just because there are Semitic roots with a final -m which can be correlated with Nahom does not mean that they are in fact to be correlated. The word stem or root may be Nah- with an -om suffix."
"One could argue that -om names, which are found throughout the BOM (early Nephite, late Nephite, Jaredite), are an indication that a single mind conceived them all. Recall too that -e/antum (and related -ianton) type names appear in all three literary-cultural periods: Irreantum (early Nephite); Coriantum, Coriantumr, Coriantor (Jaredite); Corianton, Moriantum, Seantum (late Nephite). This is not what one expects from an ancient document which reflects discrete cultural-historical periods, but is explainable if Joseph Smith invented the names and wrote the BOM."INSERT MAP IMAGE Also, Nahom, (and it's variation Nehem) was on many maps that were circulating about since the mid-1700's, right up to the time Smith wrote the Book of Mormon. Could one of those have fallen in the hands of Smith? Mormon apologists flatly deny it, but it cannot be ruled out completely. What we have here, is all speculation, with no basis of fact to tie anything to the Book of Mormon. What should concern Mormons is the fact that not one shred of evidence has been found in the New World to support the historicity of the Book of Mormon: that there was a massive population of Jewish-Christian peoples that inhabited the Americas, who left no evidence of their existence at all. Here is Aston on YouTube, at a UFO Symposium:
A narrow test for perfection brings an ever-present danger that even the appearance of imperfection seems decisive. We risk coming to a false conclusion based on a misperception.Is he still burning this strawman? Seems so. Who exactly is testing perfection? Not Jeremy Runnells. This (again) has all been invented in Christensen's mind. What misperception? Oh wait, here comes another-this time tragic-anecdote, this time dealing with William Shakespeare...
This is the theme of Shakespeare's tragedy, Othello. Because of the manipulations of Iago, the innocent Desdemona appears to be [Page 183]guilty of betraying Othello's trust. Doubtless the mental pain, anguish, and feeling of betrayal that Othello suffers are real (at least within the world of the play). But while Othello is busy suffering angst and murdering his innocent wife, the last thing he needs is to be surrounded by understanding and sympathetic Iagos who only want to validate his pain, perhaps suggesting that if he suffocates her sooner and faster, he'll suffer less in the long run. The tragedy of Othello is not that Iago is around to practice deception and manipulation, but that Othello's faith in Desdemona's fidelity is so fragile. He proclaims his love but makes far too little effort to come to her defense, shows no patience or tolerance or capacity for forgiveness or even simple faith, hope, and charity. He never thinks to say, "Let him who is without sin cast the first stone" and never stops to consider that the problem might be in his own misperception, at least, not until it is too late for Desdemona and for himself. It is also clear that after he has killed his wife, the last thing that he wants to discover is her innocence.Wow, Christensen has read some Shakespeare. Too bad this is tragically irrelevant and diversionary, created only to feed Christensen's own strawman. Moving on...
All of this calls for a careful examination of our own assumptions and background expectations, doing a little bit of checking our own eyes for beams before attempting mote removal on another person.Christensen is assuming a lot here. If he has these problems, he should work on them. But don't put them on others when you don't know them at all. This is simply arrogance folks. Insinuating that Jeremy is a hypocrite because he doesn't believe Mormon Apologist arguments with no proof?
Remember that Runnells's very first point depends on the un-argued and unexamined assumption that any human error in the Book of Mormon translation is "damning," and by itself sufficient to "totally undermine" Joseph's claim to be a translator.How could we forget when Christensen keeps repeating this over and over again? Here is what Jeremy actually wrote:
The presence of 17th century KJV italics and 1769 KJV errors - word for word - in the Book of Mormon is its own damning evidence. These errors totally undermine the claim that Joseph "translated" the Book of Mormon and the claim that the Book of Mormon is the most correct book on earth.Remember, lds.org claims that Joseph got the words on the stone directly from God, so how could there be human error involved? As we have seen from the evidence above, that is exactly what Smith taught. In the Book of Mormon preface written by Joseph Smith he claims that:
Wherefore, it is an abridgment of the record of the people of Nephi, and also of the Lamanites�Written to the Lamanites, who are a remnant of the house of Israel; and also to Jew and Gentile�Written by way of commandment, and also by the spirit of prophecy and of revelation�Written and sealed up, and hid up unto the Lord, that they might not be destroyed�To come forth by the gift and power of God unto the interpretation thereof�Sealed by the hand of Moroni, and hid up unto the Lord, to come forth in due time by way of the Gentile�The interpretation thereof by the gift of God.He then claims:
And now, if there are faults they are the mistakes of men; wherefore, condemn not the things of God, that ye may be found spotless at the judgment-seat of Christ.What is this directed at? We have no idea. He claims that the Book was written "by the spirit of prophecy and revelation", and later claimed that the Book of Mormon was the most correct book on earth (no errors) and that there were "no errors in the revelations I have taught." So what errors does he speak of? Most likely printing errors. As John S. Dinger writes:
In 1837, LDS Church members Parley P. Pratt (1807-57) and John Goodson (1814?-74?) republished the Book of Mormon in Kirtland, Ohio. Though it took seven years for a second printing, Church leaders had discussed republication as early as 1833. On June 25, 1833, the First Presidency (composed of Smith and two counselors) wrote a letter to Church printer W. W. Phelps in Missouri regarding the reprinting of the Book of Mormon, and stated: "As soon as we can get time, we will review the manuscripts of the Book of Mormon, after which they will be forwarded to you."9 Other printing-related projects and the subsequent destruction of the LDS Church-owned printing press in Independence, Missouri, by angry non-Mormons delayed the printing of a second edition of the Book of Mormon.
The second edition was financed by Pratt and Goodson, who were given permission to publish up to 5,000 copies; however, it is likely that only 3,000 were actually printed.10 Though published in the United States, many copies of the 1837 edition were taken to England, where they were distributed or sold by LDS proselyzting missionaries. This printing filled a need on both continents.
With this second edition, like virtually every edition that followed, changes were made to the text of the volume. As indicated by the letter to Phelps, Smith, and others-mostly Cowdery-worked to make the second edition of the Book of Mormon more closely follow the original manuscripts. Smith and Cowdery checked the 1830 edition against the Printer's Manuscript in the winter of 1836 and into early 1837, marking up the Printer's Manuscript in the process. As a result, Smith authorized more than 2,000 changes, mostly grammatical, to the text. The preface to the 1837 edition states: "Individuals acquainted with book printings, are aware of the numerous typographical errors which always occur in manuscript editions. It is only necessary to say, that the whole has been carefully re-examined and compared with the original manuscript" (p. v).These are the errors that Smith speaks of, not the revelatory part of the Book of Mormon, which Smith claimed was given by God and contained no errors. Christensen continues:
Notice too that the closest Runnells comes to actually defining translate is when he complains that according to unnamed "unofficial apologists" the word "translate doesn't really mean translate."Who is complaining? Again, Runnells is making observations. The only one whining here is Christensen, about the fact that Jeremy is not impressed with apologetic spin and pseudo intellectual word games. Are any Mormon apologists "official'? Not according to them. So what is Christensen objecting to here? We can't figure that out. Perhaps this quote by FairMormon might help:
Modern readers are accustomed to thinking of a 'translation' as only the conversion of text in one language to another. But, Joseph used the term in a broader and more inclusive sense, which included explanation, commentary, and harmonization. The JST is probably best understood in this light.So here we see that translate doesn't always mean translate in the dictionary sense of the word, exactly what Jeremy was getting at.
This would be a good place to explain what the word means in the context of what Joseph Smith actually did.We have done that above. Let's see what Christensen's take is:
We need to do a bit of eye checking here. What does it mean to translate? Runnells implies a circular definition in which translate should mean "translate," which, if you actually stop to think about it, does not help much. Nor does it demonstrate any degree of introspection, self-reflection, or even inquiry.What point is Christensen trying to make here? He wants to give the parameters of what he thinks translation meant to Joseph Smith. To do this, he quotes Webster's 1828 Dictionary:
TRANSLATE, verb transitive [Latin translatus, from transfero; trans, over, and fero, to bear.]
- To bear, carry or remove from one place to another. It is applied to the removal of a bishop from one see to another.
The bishop of Rochester, when the king would have translated him to a better bishoprick, refused.
- To remove or convey to heaven, as a human being, without death.
By faith Enoch was translated, that he should not see death. Hebrews 11:15.
- To transfer; to convey from one to another. 2 Samuel 3:10.
- >To cause to remove from one part of the body to another; as, to translate a disease.
- To change.
Happy is your grace,
That can translate the stubbornness of fortune
Into so quiet and so sweet a style.
[Page 185]6. To interpret; to render into another language; to express the sense of one language in the words of another.
The Old Testament was translated into the Greek language more than two hundred years before Christ. The Scriptures are now translated into most of the languages of Europe and Asia.
- To explain.
Here, a single word�translate�has several definitions. I notice that the word perfect does not appear anywhere in this definition of translate.Once again Christensen applies his "perfect" strawman to Jeremy without any citation or proof whatsoever that Jeremy even thinks this. Christensen folks, is basically arguing with himself here. Now this exercise (in giving definitions for the word translate) shows us that this is simply grandstanding. In the case of Joseph Smith does translate mean to carry? To remove to heaven? To convey from one to another? To transmit a disease? To change? Finally, we get to it at number 6. Of course it is pretty basic knowledge that words can mean different things. Still, Christensen presses his strawman:
Nor does even the sixth definition of translate say that expressing "the sense of one language in the words of another" requires that existing successful translations, with or without italicized explanatory words, should or must be completely ignored. To succeed in its purpose, a translation need not be completely original or unique or flawless.Ok, that's common sense. So? This is not the point that Jeremy was making.That definition nowhere includes the translation being done "by the gift and power of God", now, does it? This is why Christensen's whole argument is fallacious. Here is what Jeremy actually wrote:
When King James translators were translating the KJV bible between 1604 and1611, they would occasionally put in their own words into the text to make the English more readable. We know exactly what these words are because they're italicized in the KJV bible. What are these 17th century italicized words doing in the Book of Mormon? Word for word? What does this say about the Book of Mormon being an ancient record?The issue is that Joseph Smith carried over all the King James additions to the text that was given to him by God. This has nothing to do with claiming perfection of Smith, but why God would include the KJV errors with the text he placed on Joseph's stone. Let's try and use some common sense to answer this translation issue in relation to the Book of Mormon. What did Joseph claim to do? He claimed to translate the "Reformed Egyptian" characters from the gold plates into English. How did he do this? By putting a stone in a hat and having God make the translation of each character appear on his stone. Therefore Smith could then claim that he "translated" the Book of Mormon "by the gift and power of God." So in reality who really made the translation? God, not Joseph Smith. In Kirtland, Joseph "translated" some of the Book of Abraham for Michael Chandler:
The morning Mr. Chandler first presented his papyrus to bro.�Smith, he was shown, by the latter, a number of characters like those upon the writings of Mr. C. which were previously copied from the plates, containing the history of the Nephites, or book of Mormon. Being solicited by Mr. Chandler to give an opinion concerning his antiquities, or translation of some of the characters, bro. S. gave him the interpretation of some few for his satisfaction.Here Joseph claimed that some of the characters on the papyrus were like those which were copied from the plates and so Smith was able to translate them and give the interpretation. Thus, Smith translated characters from another language into English. There isn't any broader meaning here. This is what Smith claimed to do with the Book of Mormon characters, except in that case he claimed that God gave him the translation on his stone. On August 10, 1832 Samuel H. Smith and Orson Hyde answered some questions to the people of Boston:
Q.-By what means did he discover the golden plates and who was with him when he made the discovery.
A.-The golden plates were discovered through the ministration of an angel of the Lord, by Joseph Smith-no one else was with him at the time of the discovery.
Q.-By whom was a fac simile of some part of the language and characters taken, and on what material.
A.-It was taken by Joseph Smith on paper from the original plates themselves.
Q.-By whom was this presented to Dr. Mitchell, and at what period?
A.-By Martin Harris, one of the witnesses who had seen the plates-do not exactly know at what time.
Q.-Is that fac simile, now in being, and if so where is it?
A.-It is, or it was in being-I have seen it.
Q.-In what manner was the interpretation, or translation made known, and by whom was it written?
A.-It was made known by the spirit of the Lord through the medium of the Urim and Thummim; and was written partly by Oliver Cowdery, and partly by Martin Harris.
Q.-What do you mean by Urim and Thummim?
A.-The same as were used by the prophets of old, which were two crystal stones, placed in bows something in the form of spectacles, which were found with the plates.
Does Runnells provide any real-world examples or evidence of inspired translations, or transmitted scripture that demonstrates the validity of his opening complaint about what I see as a minor, cosmetic aspect of the Book of Mormon translation? Are any of his complaints about Joseph Smith accompanied by any demonstration of how actual prophets have behaved or should behave? Does he have evidence that translation from ancient languages to a modern high language is more successful when it completely ignores existing translations of the same or related material? Does the New Testament demonstrate utter perfection in quoting the Old Testament or does it contain Septuagint errors? Does the King James Translation utterly ignore the earlier Tyndale translation? Would there be any advantage in ignoring existing translations of the same material? Would a use of a well-known, existing translation impede readers in the task of coming to recognize [Page 186]and comprehend what they encounter? Do the practical issues in the translation and transmission of writing from one culture to another through any human-involved means suggest that perfect translation is even possible? Does the Bible display this theoretical perfection either in its internal quotations, different accounts of the same events, or in the manuscript history or in the different translations? And, if Joseph was perpetuating a fraud, does it make sense that he would plagiarize the one source his readers were sure to recognize and regard with some heightened value?We don't know where Joseph got his translation from. We don't know anything about it other than it was called "reformed Egyptian". With the Bible, we can see the Septuagint, compare it and know that it had errors because we can compare it to other translations. We know nothing about the Book of Mormon. These kinds of speculations are non productive and rather silly. All of the Bible translations are based on older documents or documents from other languages. Real documents that can be checked. This is not the case with the Book of Mormon so Christensen's rant above is totally irrelevant to any discussion about translation. Christensen then asks:
For all these questions, the answer is no. But Runnells neither asks nor answers them. Does this save trouble, or cause it?How can Christensen know what Joseph would or would not do? Why did he make John C. Bennett his Counselor in the First Presidency when he supposedly knew he was a scoundrel? That was pretty stupid. Why did he translate the Book of Mormon with the same peepstone he used to hunt buried treasure when he knew what people would think about that? Why do you think they renamed it the "urim and thummim" and Joseph invented the "interpreters"? Why did he give Martin Harris the 116 pages when God supposedly told him no three times? Joseph Smith claimed that the Book of Mormon was translated by the "gift and power of God". Here is how the Joseph Smith Papers define the word "translate" in relation to what Joseph Smith supposedly did:
To produce a new text through a revelatory, rather than scholarly, process, by the "gift and power of God." In the Book of Mormon, the ancient prophet Mosiah translated records into his own language using "interpreters," or "two stones which was fastened into the two rims of a bow." According to the account, the possessor of the instrument was called a seer. On 6 April 1830, a revelation stated that JS would be known not only as a revelator, but also as a seer and a translator. JS stated that he was directed to translate the Book of Mormon from gold plates buried in a hill near his home. Buried with the plates were "two stones in silver bows," which fastened to a breastplate and were later referred to by the biblical term Urim and Thummim. JS was instructed to use these stones "for the purpose of translating the book." As he translated, JS dictated to scribes.Emma Smith recalled that JS used the Urim and Thummim for the first part of the translation and another seer stone for the remaining portion. Other accounts reported that JS translated by looking at the stone or stones, which he placed in a hat to reduce exterior light. JS worked on the translation of the gold plates until summer 1829. From June 1830 to July 1833, he worked on a revision or translation of the Bible, using the King James Bible rather than ancient writings as his original text. His work included both revisions and, especially within the book of Genesis, lengthy expansions. There are no reports that JS used a stone in his translation of the Bible. In July 1835, after members of the church purchased several ancient Egyptian papyrus scrolls, JS commenced translating some of the characters and stated that one of the scrolls contained the writings of the biblical prophet Abraham. JS worked intermittently on translating some of the papyri for the remainder of the year, though his exact process of translating is unclear.Portions of this translation were first published in March 1842. JS and other church members, as encouraged by an 1833 revelation, also sought to gain more conventional translation skills through the academic study of other languages, including Greek, Hebrew, and German.Nothing about how ancient prophets behaved. This only claims that Mosiah translated records into his own language using stone spectacles. Of course we don't have any of the original documents to compare Smith's translation to. Notice that they say that Smith translated through a "revelatory, rather than scholarly process". So why is what Christensen claiming relevant at all? It isn't. It is a diversion from the real issue. Smith "translates" the King James Bible into what? Based on what? The JSP claim that "his work included both revisions" and "lengthy expansions. So how is this translating in any sense of the word? Again, the 1828 definition states that "translate" means:
To interpret; to render into another language; to express the sense of one language in the words of another.How does one "translate" an English Bible into English? This is not translation, it is simply Smith adding his own words to the Bible, or in some cases subtracting what he didn't like. He even wrote a whole chapter in Genesis about himself. This is not any kind of translation.
Part III: Lowered Expectations
On Prophets and TranslationsChristensen starts off this section with:
Runnells complains about Joseph Smith as a prophet, but he never bothers to define what a prophet In should be, and therefore, he does not inquire into what we should expect from one. Based on the arguments he offers his implicit definition is that prophets ought to be perfect, God's sock-puppets, and never ought to do or say or permit anything that violate Runnell's own unexamined expectations from what he learned by attending Sacrament Meetings.Wow. Where is he getting this stuff from? This is simply another one of Christensen's many strawman arguments. In Debunking FAIR's Debunking, the word "perfect" isn't used by Jeremy about the Book of Mormon translation. It's actually used by FairMormon! Jeremy wrote:
If Joseph copied Biblical passages during the Book of Mormon translation to represent ideas expresses by Isaiah (as suggested in the September 1977 Ensign), then it is understandable that he changed or corrected some of these instances during his work on the "Joseph Smith Translation" of the Bible. Joseph did not claim to be mechanically preserving some hypothetically 'perfect' Biblical text. Rather, Joseph used the extant King James text as a basis for commentary, expansion, and clarification based upon revelation, with particular attention to issues of doctrinal importance for the modern reader. Modern readers are accustomed to thinking of a 'translation' as only the conversion of text in one language to another. But, Joseph used the term in a broader and more inclusive sense, which included explanation, commentary, and harmonization. The JST is probably best understood in this light.Jeremy has never claimed that Smith restored a "perfect" Biblical text when he corrected the KJV of the Bible. Jeremy's reply was:
Contrary to FairMormon's assertion above that God himself revealed the 1769 KJV errors to Joseph, FairMormon is conceding here that Joseph copied KJV text over to the Book of Mormon.
According to the above-referenced September 1977 Ensign, Joseph Smith was sitting there translating the Book of Nephi when he recognized the text as Isaiah, stopped the translation, put down his hat and magical rock, picked up his 1769 KJV Bible, and copied over the Isaiah verses including its unique 1769 KJV errors and italics into the "most correct book" Book of Mormon.
Am I really supposed to take this seriously?
Why would Joseph need to do this? How does it make any sense that Joseph stops translation coming direct from God to grab errors and italics from a book that has been corrupted over the centuries through numerous translations? A Bible that Joseph later pointed to as needing correction and which he "corrected" in his "inspired" translation of the Bible?
In any event, this scenario is contradicted by eyewitness accounts of the translation process, as well as the process described by the Church's December 2013 Gospel Topics article.
"Modern readers are accustomed to thinking of a 'translation' as only the conversion of text in one language to another."
This make sense, given the multitude of sources (including the Church-sanctioned Gospel Topics article) supporting a "tight" translation method, including the following account from David Whitmer:
"Joseph Smith would put the seer stone into a hat, and put his face in the hat, drawing it closely around his face to exclude the light; and in the darkness the spiritual light would shine. A piece of something resembling parchment would appear, and on that appeared the writing. One character at a time would appear, and under it was the interpretation in English. Brother Joseph would read off the English to Oliver Cowdery, who was his principal scribe, and when it was written down and repeated to Brother Joseph to see if it was correct, then it would disappear, and another character with the interpretation would appear."
- Quoted in Elder Russell M. Nelson's "A Treasured Testament"
If the Bible verses were good enough for the "most correct book," there is no reason to change them in the JST of the Bible (other than to obfuscate the plagiarism). If Joseph was trying to make the Bible more correct, he would not change something that was correct according to Isaiah.
As I have stated in the CES Letter:
Joseph Smith corrected the Bible. In doing so, he also corrected the same identical passage in the Book of Mormon. The Book of Mormon is "the most correct book" and was translated a mere decade before the JST. The Book of Mormon was not corrupted over time and did not need correcting. How is it that the Book of Mormon still has the incorrect passage and does not match the JST in the first place?Does Christensen deal with these issues? No. He goes off on a tangent of trying to define what he thinks a prophet should be. He then expounds on his own expectations:
For my part, I did spend considerable time figuring out what I should expect, and in the process I discovered twenty-eight Biblical tests for discerning true and false prophets. I find that they set my expectations in a very different way. For example:
We are men of like passions with you. (Acts 14:15)
If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8)Here is still another of Christensen's straw men. It seems he doesn't know the difference between personal infallibility and doctrinal infallibility when men speak by the "power of the Holy Ghost", which is what Jeremy was getting at. What does having sin have to do with translating something? What does having passions have to do with translating something? Remember, Smith said "I never told you I was perfect (a man of passions, etc) but there are NO ERRORS in the revelations I have taught." Mormon apologists can't seem to grasp that this is broken up into two parts: personal faults, and what they teach. Smith claims faults but does not extend that to his "revelations". At lds.org we read:
It is the making known of divine truth by communication with the heavens and consists not only of revelation of the plan of salvation to the Lord's prophets but also a confirmation in the hearts of the believers that the revelation to the prophets is true. It also consists of individual guidance for every person who seeks for it and follows the prescribed course of faith, repentance, and obedience to the gospel of Jesus Christ. "The Holy Ghost is a revelator," said Joseph Smith, and "no man can receive the Holy Ghost without receiving revelations" (HC 6:58). Without revelation, all would be guesswork, darkness, and confusion.Here we see the Church proclaim that what their "prophets" reveal is the opposite of any guesswork, darkness or confusion, and that "the revelation to the prophets is true." It does not mention anything about men's "passions" interfering with that revelation. In the 1835 Doctrine and Covenants we read:
Because of the weakness and imperfections of human nature, and the great frailties of man; for such is the weakness of man, and such his frailties, that he is liable to sin continually, and if God were not long suffering, and full of compassion, gracious and merciful and of a forgiving disposition, man would be cut off from before him in consequence of which, he would be in continual doubt and could not exercise faith: for where doubt is, there faith has no power, but by man's believing that God is full of compassion and forgiveness, long suffering and slow to anger, he can exercise faith in him and overcome doubt, so as to be exceedingly strong. (1835 Doctrine and Covenants, page 43)Christensen then asks:
How does Joseph Smith himself set our expectations both for himself and for his translation?
I told them I was but a man, and they must not expect me to be perfect; if they expected perfection from me, I should expect it from them; but if they would bear with my infirmities and the infirmities of the brethren, I would likewise bear with their infirmities.But Joseph Smith also said, "I never told you I was perfect but there are NO ERRORS in the revelations that I have taught." It is obvious that Smith separated his personal weaknesses from his "revelations", something that Christensen is unwilling or unable to comprehend. He then tries to shift this to Smith's ability to translate:
In discussing a passage in Malachi, Joseph Smith comments that "I might have rendered a plainer translation to this, but it is sufficiently plain to suit my purposes as it stands." (D&C 128:18).So? What was Smith "translating"? He writes:
And again, in connection with this quotation I will give you a quotation from one of the prophets, who had his eye fixed on the restoration of the priesthood, the glories to be revealed in the last days, and in an especial manner this most glorious of all subjects belonging to the everlasting gospel, namely, the baptism for the dead; for Malachi says, last chapter, verses 5th and 6th: Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord: And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.The place to make this change would have been Smith's Inspired Version of the Bible, but it reads:
- For, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly, shall be stubble; and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.
- But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.
- And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet in the day that I shall do this, saith the Lord of hosts.
- Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.
- Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord;
- And he shall turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers, lest I come and smite the earth with a curse.
"And he shall plant in the hearts of the Children the promises made to the fathers, and the hearts of the children shall turn to their fathers, if it were not so the whole earth would be utterly wasted at his coming."Christensen throws things out there, but it is obvious that he is not familiar with the very argument he is trying to make here. (Which isn't Jeremy's argument, but I am responding to it anyway). This is Smith's "plainer translation" that he didn't quote in 1842. But as you can see, it wasn't in Smith's "inspired version". Christensen continues:
In D&C 1 as part of a formal statement of "the authority of my servants" (v. 6) God declares that the revelations "were given unto my servants in their weakness, after the manner of their language, that they might come to understanding. And inasmuch as they erred, it might be made known." (D&C 1:24-25). Notice that this formal statement of the "authority of my servants" describes the Church as in process, not as a stasis.
These passages introduce a different expectation, one that actually gives evidence of Joseph's robust, tolerant, and open-ended attitude about himself and his own translations and revelations, which he felt free to edit. If a prophet can accomplish what is "expedient," a word that appears many times in the Doctrine and Covenants, he can serve God's purposes, which according to Isaiah 55:8-11, are concerned with long-term processes. If a translation is good enough, sufficient, it does not have to be perfect. If a translation is imperfect, then there is nothing wrong with improving it later.Who is Christensen trying to kid here? All one has to do is read until the end of the "revelation" to see that Christensen is simply wrong. It states in Verse 37:
- Search these commandments, for they are true and faithful, and the prophecies and promises which are in them shall all be fulfilled.
- What I the Lord have spoken, I have spoken, and I excuse not myself; and though the heavens and the earth pass away, my word shall not pass away, but shall all be fulfilled, whether by mine own voice or by the voice of my servants, it is the same.
- For behold, and lo, the Lord is God, and the Spirit beareth record, and the record is true, and the truth abideth forever and ever. Amen.
If we consider Joseph Smith's productions against the real-world examples of purportedly scriptural texts, we have the advantage of building our expectations upon a solid foundation, rather than airy supposition. John Welch in Illuminating the Sermon at the Temple and the Sermon on the Mount discusses several related translation issues.Interesting that Christensen would relegate statements by Mormon "authorities" to "airy supposition", because that it what he is ultimately doing. But what was Smith "translating" from? God did not give Smith his "revelations" in Hebrew and then have him "translate" them into English. Christensen's whole argument here is ridiculous. We don't have the Book of Mormon plates, nor do we have any discoveries of the language they were supposedly translated into, to make any kind of comparison as we do with the Biblical texts. He continues:
Hugh Nibley has suggested several other reasons that made the use of King James style important, if not necessary. One reason was Joseph's audience: "When Jesus and the Apostles and, for that matter, the Angel Gabriel quote the [Hebrew] scriptures in the New Testament, do they recite from some mysterious Urtext? Do they quote the prophets of old in the ultimate original?...No, they do not. They quote the Septuagint, a Greek version of the Old Testament prepared in the third century B.C. Why so? Because that happened to be the received standard version of the Bible accepted by the readers of the Greek New Testament."So? It is what it is. Joseph claimed to have the actual record, but never produces it. God supposedly preserved it, but only for him alone to see? Why then, isn't this a precedent for all of God's scriptures? This was Joseph's argument for the Book of Abraham, that God had preserved (miraculously) the very papyri that Abraham wrote on. We now know that Joseph simply made that up. When we have records of Smith's "translations", he fails miserably as a translator. They only reason why Christensen and other apologists can even make an argument with the Book of Mormon is that we do not have the original record, and there is no discovery anywhere that can confirm the "caractors" that Smith claimed came from the plates. Also, the argument isn't about the style of the KJV. It is about why the errors were included in the Book of Mormon translation which Christensen still has not answered with any compelling argument. He then speculates:
Another reason for the use of the style of the King James Version was the nature of the record: "The scriptures were probably in old-fashioned language the day they were written down."How can Christensen even postulate this when he has no way of knowing? This is simply speculation and his whole argument is based on speculation. Christensen continues:
Furthermore, "by frankly using that idiom, the Book of Mormon avoids the necessity of having to be redone into 'modern English' every thirty or forty years."This is simply irrelevant. The Book of Mormon has to be translated into dozens of other languages, doesn't it? This is simply silliness.
To such points, other explanations may be added, but the foregoing seem sufficient.Hardly. But this seems to be all he's got. We then have Christensen trying to prop up Smith's "New Translation" of the Bible or the "Inspired Version":
The King James idiom yields a good translation of both the Sermon on the Mount and the Sermon at the Temple. In fact, a study of the Greek vocabulary used in Matthew 5-7 will show that in most cases, the traditional English translation is rather straightforward. The syntax of most of the sentences is relatively simple, the expressions are direct, and most of the words and phrases have obvious and adequate primary choices in English as their translation [Page 189] (although their meaning and implications still remain profound).Again, irrelevant. If Christensen can show that this is why Joseph chose that style, then fine but there is no evidence that he wrote that way for those reasons. It is far more convincing that he simply copied passages out of the KJV and used that style to make the Book of Mormon appear more "scriptural". As Kevin L. Barney wrote:
Holding to the more traditional Mormon view that the JST provides a restoration of ancient text presents important difficulties. First, the restorationist view assumes that ancient texts can be restored by inspiration. Considering this claim is beyond the scope of this essay. A second problem is not so easily set aside. The restorationist view assumes that at some point the original text was substantially corrupted. Some LDS exegetes have hypothesized deliberate and widespread textual corruptions early enough to be incorporated into the earliest biblical manuscripts that have survived.5 Since the original autographs are irrecoverable, this assertion cannot be completely disproved, but it has been weakened by the discovery of Hebrew texts dating from the second century B.C., which support the basic integrity of the later Old Testament manuscripts. Some New Testament manuscripts date to the fourth, third, and even second centuries A.D. This means the window of time in which the textual corruptions could have occurred is increasingly narrow and the likelihood that the JST represents restorations of the original text extremely slim. (The Word of God, p. 145).Still, Christensen claims:
If I approach Joseph's translations with a view to finding evidence of real inspiration, rather than perfection, my attention will move in different directions. I might end up noticing and valuing this discussion by Welch in his next chapter.Again, the "perfection" strawman.
In one important passage, manuscript evidence favors the Sermon at the Temple, and it deserves recognition. The kjv of Matthew 5:22 reads, "Whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause [eikei] shall be in danger of the judgment" (italics added). The Sermon at the Temple drops the phrase without a cause (3 Nephi 12:22). So do many of the better early manuscripts.
This favorable evidence for the Sermon at the Temple has the support of reliable sources.Should we start listing from the Inspired Version all of the instances where Smith got it wrong? I can think of a dozen of them off hand. This shows that there was no consistency here with Smith and so this is simply an instance of where Joseph dropped a phrase that was not in the original manuscripts. He went over the whole Bible. There were bound to be some of these. Remember what Hugh Nibley said above?
While lacking unanimous consensus in the early manuscripts of the Sermon on the Mount (which is not unusual), the [Page 190]absence of the phrase "without a cause" is evidenced by the following manuscripts: p64, p67, Sinaiticus (original hand), Vaticanus, some minuscules, the Latin Vulgate (Jerome mentions that it was not found in the oldest manuscripts known to him), the Ethiopic texts, the Gospel of the Nazarenes, Justin, Tertullian, Origen, and others. One may count as compelling all readings that are supported by "the best Greek MSS�by the 200 ce p64 (where it is extant) and by at least the two oldest uncials, as well as some minuscules, [especially if] it also has some Latin, Syriac, Coptic, and early patristic support." A survey of the list of manuscripts supporting the Sermon at the Temple and the original absence of the phrase without a cause in Matthew 5:22 shows that this shorter reading meets these criteria.
Moreover, this textual difference in the Greek manuscripts of the Sermon on the Mount is the only variant that has a significant impact on meaning. It is much more severe to say, "Whoever is angry is in danger of the judgment," than to say, "Whoever is angry without a cause is in danger of the judgment." The first discourages all anger against a brother; the second permits brotherly anger as long as it is justifiable. The former is more like the demanding sayings of Jesus regarding committing adultery in one's heart (see Matthew 5:28) and loving one's enemies (see Matthew 5:44), neither of which offers the disciple a convenient loophole of self-justification or rationalization. Indeed, as Wernberg-M�ller points out, the word eikei in Matthew 5:22 may reflect a Semitic idiom that does not invite allowance for "'just' anger in certain circumstances" at all, but "is original and echoes some Aramaic phrase, condemning anger as sinful in any case" and "as alluding to � the harboring of angry feelings for any length of time." In light of Wernberg-M�ller's interpretation of the underlying idiom, the original sense of Matthew 5:22 is accurately reflected in the Sermon at the Temple whether eikei is included in the Greek saying or not.Stan Larsen has adequately rebutted these claims by Welch in his "New Approaches to the Book of Mormon":
Welch argues that this passage fulfills my criteria and should be included with the eight examples: "While lacking unanimous consensus in the early manuscripts (which is not unusual), the absence of the phrase 'without a cause' from the Sermon on the Mount is evidenced by manuscripts p64, p67, Sinaiticus (original hand), Vaticanus, some minuscules, the Latin Vulgate (Jerome mentions that it was not found in the oldest manuscripts known to him), Justin, Tertullian, Origen, and others.� A check of the list of manuscripts supporting the Sermon at the Temple [Book of Mormon] and the original absence of the phrase 'without a cause' in Matthew 5:22 shows that this shorter reading meets Larson's criteria" (1990, 162).
On the contrary, this passage does not meet the criteria which were used to select my eight examples: Augustinus Merk prints eike 'without a cause' with brackets in his text, and there is absolutely no support from family 1, the Syriac, and the Coptic. Welch is mistaken in citing [p.128] both p64 and p67 as different documents, since the "two" papyri are simply two numbers for different parts of the same papyrus (Roca-Puig 1962, 63-64). Thus Matthew 5:22 was eliminated from consideration with the eight secure examples. However, since it is the one Book of Mormon example which has been used as strong evidence for the Book of Mormon's antiquity, it will perhaps be useful to examine it in detail (Welch 1977, 47; cf. Matthews 1975, 251).
The absence or presence of eike at Matthew 5:22 is a genuinely ambiguous case, with significant evidence on both sides of the question. Welch has already given the evidence for its omission. Its presence is supported by the remainder of the uncials and minuscules, most of the Old Latin manuscripts (including the important Codex Bobiensis), three manuscripts of the Vulgate, all the Syriac versions (including the important Sinaitic Syriac), both the Sahidic and the Bohairic versions, Irenaeus, part of Origen, and Cyprian (Black 1988, 5-6). Also, the presence of homoeoarchton, which is an accidental error caused by the eye skipping from the beginning of one word to the same beginning in another word, favors the original presence of eike. The skip would have been from the epsilon at the beginning of eike to the epsilon at the beginning of the next word, that is, from eike to enochos.
Due to this uncertainty, a decision concerning the reading remains tentative. Accordingly, Merk shows due caution in bracketing eike because there is not a clear-cut case concerning "without a cause" at Matthew 5:22. In view of the equivocal nature of the textual evidence the editors of the United Bible Societies Greek New Testament in their four-level system of grading the relative degree of certainty concerning the originality of a reading ranked the absence of eike as a C-rating. Consequently, though the case is not clear-cut and there is evidence that it may be an accidental omission in the Greek, on balance I would lean to the opinion that eike "without a cause" was not originally at Matthew 5:22.
The absence of eike was known before 1830 when the Book of Mormon appeared, since it was discussed by Desiderius Erasmus, John Mill, Johann Wettstein, Johann Gilesbach, and Andreas Birch in reference to the Greek text, not translated in William Tyndale's New Testament from 1526 to 1535, and popularized by various English writers. For example, the Methodist writer, Adam Clarke, whose multi-volume biblical commentary was first published in London in 1810 with at least ten American printings and editions in New York from 1811 to 1829, suggested that it was a marginal gloss which later entered into the text (Clarke 1825). It is interesting that Clarke favors the omission of eike at Matthew 5:22 and the retention of the doxology at Matthew 6:13 and that the Book of Mormon follows Clarke's decision in these two passages. However, not too much significance [p.129] should be attached to this agreement since Clarke appears to favor the omission of tois archaiois at Matthew 5:27 and the omission of en to phanero at Matthew 6:18, and the Book of Mormon does not have these omissions. However, the Book of Mormon omission of "without a cause" need not depend on any of these sources, since the phrase could have been deleted simply because it detracted from the strength of Jesus' command against anger. It has been suggested that the ancient support which this Book of Mormon deletion received could be due to "a coincidence caused by a problem with the wording of the KJV" (Barney 1986, 89). Since there could be coincidental agreement, the same omission in two separate texts is not significant in establishing a connection between them. What is important in textual criticism is the same distinctive addition, peculiar error, or the same alternate reading.
It is significant to note that among the thirty-eight known variants and sub-variants of these eight secure examples, the Book of Mormon always aligns itself with the derivative text found in the Textus Receptus which was printed by Stephanus in 1550 and never agrees with either the original text or any of the other known variant readings. If the Book of Mormon were a genuinely ancient text, it would not always be expected to side with what modern scholarship concludes is the original text, but certainly there ought to be some agreement. Just as a careful comparison of Gabriel Sionita's 1633 Harclean Syriac Apocalypse discloses his conjectural emendations, which were based on late Erasmian Greek and Clementine Vulgate texts, so an exhaustive examination reveals that this Book of Mormon sermon depends on the 1550 Textus Receptus, as relied on by the English text of the KJV. (Brent Metcalfe, New Approaches to the Book of Mormon, p. 127-129)Another example of Smith's changes to the New Testament is Luke 10:22:
KJV: All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him.(Luke 10:22)
JST: All things are delivered to me of my Father; and no man knoweth that the Son is the Father, and the Father is the Son, but him to whom the Son will reveal it.(Luke 10:22, Joseph Smith Translation, emphasis mine)Not one ancient manuscript agrees with this change. It radically changes the verse into something that it was never intended to say. See Joel Groat's analysis of the JST and the many errors that Joseph Smith made here.
In my estimation, this textual variant in favor of the Sermon at the Temple is very meaningful. The removal of without a cause has important moral, behavioral, psychological, and religious ramifications, as it is the main place where a significant textual change from the kjv was in fact needed and delivered.Again, how many were not as Larsen states above? This is simply hit and miss with Joseph Smith and so cannot be taken seriously. As Stan Larson wrote in New Approaches to the Book of Mormon:
The comparison is complicated by the Book of Mormon's connection to the King James Version of the Bible (KJV). Since about the turn of the twentieth century, Mormon writers have suggested that Smith quoted directly from the KJV of Matthew when dictating the Book of Mormon account of Jesus' sermon. B. H. Roberts of the First Council of Seventy said that Smith "adopted our English translation" (B. Roberts 1904, 184; cf. Ostler 1987, 78). Sidney B. Sperry, Brigham Young University professor of religion, suggested that Smith used the KJV word for word "as long as the Sermon in the familiar rendering of Matthew 5-7 agreed substantially with the Nephite version" (1947, 190; 1967, 112). Hugh Nibley concurred that as long as the KJV "is correct there is every reason why it should be followed" (1961, 10; 1989, 215).
Such views imply that where the KJV has an incorrect text, it should not have been followed in the Book of Mormon. Thus Sperry maintained that in such cases Smith would have corrected the wording of the KJV "to conform with the text before him on the metal plates" (Sperry 1947, 190; 1967, 112). Roberts similarly affirmed that Smith first compared the KJV to the Book of Mormon records, and "when he found the sense of the passage on the Nephite plates superior to that in the English version he made such changes as would give the superior sense and clearness" (B. Roberts 1904, 191).
Sperry went on to argue that if the Book of Mormon should fail to make such corrections and instead copy corruptions or errors which accumulated over the centuries, then it "should be thrown out of court" because this "would be plain evidence that Joseph Smith did not translate from a really ancient text." In this context Sperry asserted that textual criticism could cast considerable light on "the asserted antiquity" of the Book of Mormon, since "critical tests can be most subtle and powerful in probing for slips on the part of unlearned impostors who offer amended biblical texts for the examination of the public" (1947, 171; 1967, 91). Nibley concurred that "one of the best established disciplines in the world is the critical examination of written texts to detect what in them is spurious and what is genuine" (1953, 830; 1989, 55). This is because the most significant indication used by textual critics in tracing relationships between documents is errors, since coincidental agreement is ruled out when two documents have the same telltale mistakes.
It is possible to identify places where errors, revisions, and additions have crept into the KJV. Published in 1611, the KJV relies on the Greek text of the New Testament available in the late sixteenth century. In the 381 years since then, hundreds of better and more ancient Greek, Latin, Syriac, and Coptic manuscripts have been discovered and brought us closer to the original Matthean text. This means that it is possible�given the opportunity of comparing the versions of Jesus' Sermon on the Mount in Matthew and 3 Nephi�to make tentative judgments about whether the Book of Mormon stands up to the tests of historicity Roberts, Sperry, and Nibley proposed. If the Book of Mormon varies from both the KJV and the earliest texts, one cannot pronounce judgment on the Book of Mormon version, since the Book of Mormon variation could be specific to its audience and setting in the New World. However, if the Book of Mormon text departs from the errors of the KJV and agrees with the most original Matthean texts, it supports the claim that the Book of Mormon is a genuine translation of an ancient document. On the other hand, if the Book of Mormon text sides with the later Greek text as seen in the KJV, this dependence would be strong evidence against its historicity. The reason for this is that the Book of Mormon on the American continent should know nothing of changes and additions to the Sermon on the Mount made in the Old World centuries after the original sermon, but should be a direct link to the real words of Jesus. (Brent Metcalfe, New Approaches to the Book of Mormon, p.116)Stan Larsen concludes:
We need not agree that Book of Mormon dependence on errors in the KJV Sermon on the Mount "casts suspicion on the whole" text of the Book of Mormon. My conclusions are confined to 3 Nephi 12-14. On purely text-critical grounds, the historicity of 3 Nephi 12-14 is suspect. Nowhere in the Book of Mormon version of Jesus' sermon is there any indisputable evidence of its being a translation from an ancient document (Ashment 1980). One can never prove that something did not happen. All that can be said is that there is no evidence to substantiate the view that the Book of Mormon records a real visit by the resurrected Jesus to the place called Bountiful in the Book of Mormon. 56). (Brent Metcalfe, New Approaches to the Book of Mormon, p.133)Here is one scholar that has read Nibley and other Mormon apologists and comes to the same conclusion as Jeremy Runnells about 3 Nephi. Is Larsen also to be considered a "brittle Anti-Mormon"?
Welch discusses some King James errors repeated in 3 Nephi but does so without scandal because, quite frankly, none of them change the meaning significantly. And the larger context of 3 Nephi 8-29 demonstrates remarkable inspiration in disclosing the temple background of the Sermon on the Mount. Welch's approach was impressive enough that a non-LDS press published his work as applied to the Sermon in Matthew.17 Welch does not ignore the errors, but he doesn't grant them the decisive status or sole focus that Runnells does. Plus Welch makes several observations that support the Joseph Smith claims of having provided an inspired translation, which need not be a perfect translation, nor oblige the reader to bring infallible perception and comprehension to their reading.
Several LDS writers have closely examined Joseph Smith's translations, including John Tvedtnes, Royal Skousen, John Welch, Ben McGuire, and Brant Gardner. They have highlighted important information worth careful consideration. Runnells does not so much as mention the existence of their findings. It is not ad hominem to observe that Runnells treats a few King James errors as "damning" and "totally undermining" Joseph's claims regarding a translation. He has decided that such apparent imperfections as he presents are, by themselves, decisively important. He completely ignores all LDS scholarship that gives any evidence suggesting authentic translation.We have seen that Welch's argument is not significant. How can one know if a text is "authentic" without the original document or no other writings to confirm that there was a language called "reformed Egyptian"?. The best one can do is speculate. Apologists can speculate as to why Joseph copied whole sections of the Bible into the Book of Mormon, but that is all they can do. Though the "evidence" spoken of by Christensen produced by other Apologists may be interesting to some, it is ultimately just exercises in futility and a prop for the faithful. For example, there were many Bible critics that claimed that Isaiah was a conflated document even at the time of Christ. But with the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls we know that this isn't the case. But that only advances our knowledge back to the time of Christ. But other historical events are verified in Isaiah, while there are none at all for the Book of Mormon, except where Smith copied or took information from the Bible. Christensen states:
Think about why. Where is there any manuscript evidence that demonstrates in practice, and not just in theory, that when God is involved to some degree in the transmission and translation of a sacred text, we can know this because all known manuscripts and transmissions are completely perfect, error free, never dependent on any previous translations, and are always mutually consistent without any variation or editing whatsoever? Does Runnells provide any hard evidence to back up the theory?This is still Christensen's strawman. Jeremy does not make this assertion. It is ridiculous at its core and is simply a caricature of what Jeremy states in his works. But Christensen cannot help but continue to hammer this deceptive point throughout his long diatribe. Christensen continues:
For that matter, is there any such evidence that he could have offered if he tried? Anywhere? It also turns out that had he paused long enough to clearly state that his argument depends entirely on these unstated conditions that he would also open them to critical examination. And that would not do. Who wants to publish a web document declaring that "Joseph Smith and various unofficial apologists have failed to live up to my completely unrealistic expectations."Let's be clear here. These are actually Christensen's unrealistic expectations that he projects on Jeremy. This may be his opinion of what Jeremy has published, but it is not what Jeremy actually published. What Jeremy "expects" is really irrelevant. It is the substance of his concerns that warrants answers. Notice how Christensen keeps weaving in the stawmen arguments as he goes along. Christensen continues:
The New Testament itself provides examples of how Jesus and his apostles and the occasional angel all quote the commonly used Septuagint, variants, errors, and all. As Nibley and Welch and others have pointed out, Joseph Smith's modes and means of translation have ample biblical precedent.Not really. Smith is actually quoting himself, a work that he produced, and for which there is no proof that it is genuine. Jesus was primarily a teacher, and expounded on the existing scripture of the day. Smith introduced new scripture that he wrote himself using a peepstone. Did Jesus and his apostles do this? No, they wrote letters and preached and quoted the Law and the prophets. The Greek Septuagint was a translation from the Hebrew texts (Masoretic), and the Dead Sea Scrolls and fragments are closer to the MT than to any other texts that have survived. We have something to compare the Septuagint against. Joseph Smith's was a translation from what? Mysterious gold plates that he claimed to discover by way of a peepstone that no one else ever saw (as is still being debated). What do we have to compare Smith's translation with? Nothing. Christensen continues:
As Thomas Kuhn says, "In short, consciously or not, the decision to employ a particular piece of apparatus and to use it in a particular way carries an assumption that only certain sorts of circumstances will arise." What if the circumstances you are testing for are completely unfounded? What if, as Jesus says, the problem is the beam in your own eye? What if the experiment is poorly designed, due to unrealistic expectations? What if the focus on flaws-as-decisive has the effect of distracting a person from far more fruitful investigations and evidence?Kuhn's observation is one way to look at it but can be turned against Christensen and Mormon apologists as well. But that was not Jeremy's purpose. Jeremy's purpose was to get answers to troubling questions about issues that concerned him. He was a believing Mormon that understood the "faithful" evidence", because he had been a member for years. He was a returned missionary who served in New York during the 911 attacks, and 6th generation Mormon. He went to B.Y.U. Since he could get no answers to his questions from Mormon "authorities", he went elsewhere. He sent a letter to a CES Director who promised to get back to him with answers, but never did. Perhaps if Christensen wants to better understand Jeremy he should listen to his Mormon Stories interview with John Dehlin, where Jeremy explains how great his experience was in the Church and how he stayed faithful and believing even after being blessed by a Mormon General Authority that his hearing would be restored and it was not. This is not a person who is brittle and their faith shatters easily. Christensen would have you believe this, but it is not true.
Part III Coming Soon.
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